History of science in China #3: Science and the State in China, 1644-1800

After the Manchus founded the Qing dynasty and took Beijing, the Jesuits put their scientific and technical expertise in their service. Besides calculating the calendar, they worked as engineers, gun-founders, musicians, clockmakers and cartographers. While the emperors effectively held a monopoly on Jesuit knowledge and know-how in these fields, in other fields Western learning circulated among literati in the form of printed books. Thus it was appropriated both as a tool for statecraft and as a subject of scholarly study.Air Zoom Pegasus 34 Leather

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