Kritiki: Critical Science & Education

The Greek journal "Kritiki: Critical Science & Education" is the product of the work of a network of researchers. This network is formed having as its basic unifying element the intention to theoretically reconstruct the radical perspective about science and education. Especially, Kritiki invites articles on Radical Approaches to Science and the History of Science.
Kritiki’s aim is to publish selected papers from the Seminars on Critical issues of History, Philosophy and Didactics of Science organized each July in Elati, Greece. However, the journal is open and invites papers to be published, provided that they integrate in its repertoire.

This journal is published in Greek language; contents and abstracts are available in English. Please see more details, issues and articles in the Greek version of this page. See here for the full issues contents in Greek.

> Read here about the International Conference on Critical Education

Browse the dedicated Kritiki website

Editorial Board

K. Athanassiou (Univ. of Athens)
F. Assimacopoulou (Univ. of Athens)
E. Bokaris (Univ. of Ioannina)
D. Chassapis (Univ. of Athens)
A. Chronaki (Univ. of Thessaly)
G. Fourtounis (Univ. of Thessaloniki)
K. Halkia (Univ. of Athens)
A. Kassetas (Secondary educ.)
G. Katsiampoura (Univ. of Athens)
E. Koleza (Univ. of Patras)
A. Koutsouris (Agricultural Univ.)
L. Lakka (Educ. Councellor)
Ch. Lemonidis (Univ. of W. Macedonia)
E. Nicolaidis (NHRF)
P. Pantazis (Univ. of Thessaloniki)
Y. Papadatos (Univ. of Athens),
E. Papadimitriou (Univ. of Ioannina)
G. Petraki (Panteion Univ.)
P. Politis (Univ. of Thessaly)
M. Rentetzi (NTUA)
C. Skordoulis (Univ. of Athens)
G. Stamou (Univ. of Thessaloniki)
Ch. Stathopoulou (Univ. of Thessaly)
V. Tselfes (Univ. of Athens)
G.N. Vlahakis (NHRF)
H. Giannakopoulou (Open Univ.)

Secretariat: D. Chassapis, E. Koleza, E. Nicolaidis, C. Skordoulis

Kritiki: Issues

Kritiki: Issue 1 (2005)

Contents of the issue (full texts available in Greek - see corresponding page):

Giorgos Fourtounis: Louis Althusser and the epistemological paradox of Marxism

Eugenia Koleza: Definition of reflection for assessment: What, how and why

Laokratia Lakka: Sixty years of epigenesis

Mania Georgatou, Lucia Prinou: The stable explanatory value of the theory of Natural Selection

Gianna Katsiampoura: Marxist considerations of Byzantium by Greek historiography

Pavlos Pantazis: From critics on psychology to critical psychology: Some methodological notes

Dimitris Chasapis: The scientific object of mathematics didatics: Assumptions and requests

Kritiki: Issue 2 (2005)

Contents of the issue (full texts available in Greek - see corresponding page):

Andreas Kassetas: Century of Abstraction

Costas Skordoulis: Radical ecological theories and science

Efthymios Bokaris: Chemistry as discontinuity of Alchemy. Bachelard's epistemological tradition for the constitution of the chemical science (part 1)

George Vlahakis: Early criticism of the modern science by Greek Christian. Views and opinions

Ploutarchos Psomiadis: The presence of Soviet science in Greece during 1945-1992

Rea Kakaboura: Cultural identity and family: Transgenerational approaches in the classroom

Yannis Papadatos: Marxism and psychology

Kritiki: Issue 3 (2006)

Contents of the issue (full texts available in Greek - see corresponding page):

Dimitrios Athanasakis: Method, proof and truth in classical science. Elements for a critical approach of modernity

Efthymios Bokaris: Chemistry as a discontinuity of Alchemy. The epistemological tradition of G. Bachelard for the formation of the science of Chemistry

Efthymios Nicolaidis: Revolution and scientific institutions: the Observatories of Paris and St. Petersburg

Georgia Petraki: Social classes as a theoretical and political challenge

Gianna Katsiampoura: Neohellenic Enlightenment: The liberating discourse of science

Sandra Harding: Could women ever be modern? Problems of Science and Technology

Theodoros Kehagias: Science in the Ottoman Empire: the educational institutions. (Book review, part I)

Science in the Ottoman Empire: the educational institutions. (Book review, part I: E. Ihsanoglu ed.. History of die Ottoman State, Society and Civilization, Research Center for Islamic History, Art and Culture - IRCiCA)

Kritiki: Issue 4 (2006)

Contents of the issue (full texts available in Greek - see corresponding page):

Anastasia Stamou and Stefanos Paraskevopoulos: The Language of Environmental Texts: the Critical Knowledge of Language in Environmental Education

Eleni Giannakopoulou: The Discourse of Lifelong Learning: an Analysis of Selected Educational Policy Texts on the Establishment of Lifelong Learning Institutions in Greece

George N. Vlahakis: Scientific Debates, Ideological Confrontations and Personal Disputes in the Greek Intellectual Area from the 18th to the 20th centuries

Ioanna Stavrou: We and the Others: the Alterity (Otherness) in Science Fiction Texts

Panagiotis Sotiris: The Materialism of Encounter: on Louis Althusser's Later Writings

Theodoros Kehagias: Science in the Ottoman Empire: the Scientific Institutions (Book Review, part II)

Science in the Ottoman Empire: the Scientific Institutions (Book Review, Part II: Ekmcicddin Ihsanoglu (cd.), History of the Ottoman State, Society and Civilization, Research Center for Islamic History, Art and Culture
IRCICA, Istanbul, vol. 1, 2001, XXXVTII+829p. vol. 2, 2002, XXV+822p.)

Kritiki: Issue 5 (2007)

Contents of the issue and links to the abstracts (full texts available in Greek - see corresponding page):

Kondyli Marianna & Eirini Maniou: Recontextualizing Commonsence Knowledge in «Social and Physical Environment Studies» of 1rst and 3rd Grade Greek Elementary School Textbooks: The Representations of Social and Physical World

In the socialsemiotic approach to language developed by Hallydayans Systemic Functional Linguistics, the role of language in constituting educational knowledge has been explicitly shown. Crucial parameter in the constitution of educational knowledge is considered to be decontextualized language, such as definitions and classification, conceived as necessary in generalized meaning. In the present paper tools of the Systemic Functional Linguistics, more specifically the Transitivity system, are used in analysing two textbooks in the matter of Social and Physical Environment Studies (intitled We and the World) of elementary school’s 1rst and 3rd grade; our analysis focuses on the representation of experiencial meaning. The analysis of the corpus highlightes different lexicogrammatic realizations in recontextualizion of the same thematic areas from grade to grade, as well as in the variation of definitions and classifications of social and physical entities, thus according to the paradigm of the distinction between social and physical sciences.

Anastasia G. Stamou and Anna Chronaki: How School Mathematics is Written? Scientific Discourses and Gendered Dimensions in the "Eucleid A" journal

In the present study, we examine the way pedagogic discourses are articulated and are used by male and female writers in the school mathematics magazine Euclid A. The theoretical framework of the study is that of Critical Discourse Analysis, while in the textual analysis, a systemic-functional linguistic approach is drawn upon. The analysis indicates that ≪traditional≫ is the dominant pedagogic discourse used by both genders, although male writers employ it more intensively than their female counterparts. Moreover, the ≪traditional≫ discourse used in Euclid A is found to represent mathematics as an uncontested truth. From a Critical Discourse Analysis perspective, ≪traditional≫ discourse functions ideologically: it constitutes an established discourse, resulting in the naturalization of mathematics.

Evangelos Intzidis: An Agonistic Democratic Pluralism: Modern Greek Debating Culture and the New (2006) National Educational Materials for the Primary Education

This paper examines the context of the debate concerning the national educational materials - especially the educational material for language and literacy - in the primary education. In our approach this debate is a rhetoric moment in which the institutional identities of pupils, teachers and professors are articulated around different political programs, educational politics trading in determinism for openness and contingency. This examination avoids to strengthen the conservatism - progressivism / disutopias - utopias distinction which is always an effort of particular to contest the universal.

Maria Terdimou: Geometry Versus Algebra Ancient Greek and Western Mathematics: Parallel or Intersecting Options by the Greek Scholars of the 18th Century?

During the long – lasting scientific decline following the fall of the Byzantine empire, use of Mathematics was restricted to the daily needs only. However, the revival of the scientific and philosophical thinking during the 18th century, strengthened the role of Mathematics, which acquired a dominant position. Arithmetic and Euclidean Geometry, i.e. the ancient greek mathematics, reigned supreme. The faith in the latter’s ever lasting value was proclaimed in every opportunity. The majority of the Greek Scholars belonging to this line of thought lived and taught before the so called period of Neo-Hellenic Enlightenment. Being, most of them church men were characterized by a traditional view of Science. Thus, it is to be expected for them to insist on the classical Euclidean geometry, a subject well known which offers the certainty of a solid and final knowledge; in contrast, Algebra, i.e. the more recent Mathematics, looked by its very nature, more abstract and, hence, more uncertain. The first elements of Algebra appeared in manuscripts of the period 1750- 1775, but, Algebra was not included in the mathematics textbooks, neither in mathematics treatises. This means that the first attempts to introduce Algebra in the mathematical curriculum were not fully successful. The basic reason for this hesitancy, was the difference between the algebraic and the arithmetic/ geometric way of thinking. However, in spite of this uncertain start, the first seeds had been already planted, and, as a result, several algebraic textbooks were published in the decades to come. Thus, by the end of the 18th century Algebra was included in the mathematics curricula on equal footing with Arithmetic and Geometry.

Georgia Petraki: The New Working Class

The basic working hypothesis is that while dependent labour represents by now the dominant social condition in Greek society, this is interconnected with the decrease of indigenous working class, the development of salaried technical/scientific/managerial professions which mostly comprise the new middle class, but also with the development of a “new working class” whose statistical representation is imperfect or even inexistent. We define here the “new working class” those layers of workers created as a result of new or even older employment relations, under expansion presently, as a result of the introduction of new technologies in social production and the developments of social and technical division of labour, which is strongly influenced in present day Greek society by the presence in the labour market of a large number of migrants, who live and work in conditions of semi-illegality. Yet the existence of the “new working class” which is in the process of formation in both the urban and the rural areas, is incompletely presented in official registrations, since it either works in unofficial economy (migrants and indigenous workers) or its registration in statistical categories is obscure and imperfect. Our working hypothesis is that in present day Greece, the manual work is performed to a great degree in both the urban and rural areas by migrant populations, whose position in the labour market is characterized by semi-illegality and insecurity. Also, that the degree of migrants’ presence in the manual work is conversely analogous to the degree of skills necessitated by each job category. Moreover, that the general tendency for a decrease of manual work in the total of employment (categories of individual professions STEP 7/8/9) (National Statistical Service of Greece, 1995) is reversed in those categories of unskilled trades for whose needs abundant, reserve and very cheap manual staff can be found. We are speaking mostly of “unskilled workers”, providers of “personal services” and “rural labourers”. The development of those labor categories highlights some of the structural characteristics of Greek economy and society.

Obituary: Vaggelis Giannakopoulos

Joel Kovel and Michael Lowy: An Ecosocialist Manifesto (from our archives)

Kritiki: Issue 6 (2007)

Contents of the issue and links to the abstracts (full texts available in Greek - see corresponding page):

Helena Sheehan: The influence of Marxism on Science Studies: 1931 and now

How to appraise the reverberations set off by the impact of the soviet delegation at the 1931 international history of science congress? How farreaching, how profound have been the resonances of this interaction? How were such tragic fates connected to being so fired up by such ideas? How did later soviet delegations fare at international congresses? What did subsequent generations make of this connection of Marxism with science? How have different trends within Marxism related to science? How have different trends within science studies related to Marxism? How has Marxism influenced science studies? What remains? What was set in motion at the congress continued to reverberate. Some of those present were forever changed by it. Some prospered, but others met tragic fates tied to the force of their convictions. This presentation will trace the trajectory of the ideas put forward by the soviet delegation through the decades since. It will focus both on the impact of these ideas on several generations of Marxists who have engaged with science and also on trends in science studies showing a somewhat circuitous and complex relation to Marxism.

Efthymios Bokaris: The Chemical revolution as test field of historiography strategies

The approach of Chemical Revolution through the historiographic strategies that have been constituted cannot bring out the multidimensional event, the complexity of the process and her temporality. Its uniqueness cannot be proved despite via the approach of history of sciences as history. The more suitable tool for the last one is the marxist analysis of social shaping according to Louis Althusser problematic.

Dimitris Hasapis: The research objective of the teaching of Mathematics: characteristic choices of the main stream

This paper aims to provide an exploratory look at mathematics education research from a standpoint of spotting the aspects which are selected and emphasised as essential characteristics of the phenomena studied, building on relevant research reviews. It is claimed that contextual aspects as represented by social, political and cultural factors have not given considerable attention by mainstream mathematics education related research in contrast to factors related to either psychological or instrumental aspects of mathematics thinking, learning and teaching which also are considered from an individualistic viewpoint.

Maria Rentetzi: Invisible technicians at the Nuclear Research Center Democritus: Gender and Physics in Post-War Greece

While anonymity is something that especially characterizes male laboratory technicians of the 17th and 18th century, in high energy physics laboratories of the 20th century young women known as scanning girls took up the role of anonymous assistants and technicians. Their job is internationally recognized as a female task that has nothing to do with science but it is simply routine work, a monotonous, unskilled and highly gendered assignment. This paper focuses on the Greek nuclear research center Democritus during the 1950s and 1960s. It emphasizes the role of scanning girls at the center’s group of high energy physics. I argue that the work of those women was crucial and constitutive part of the experiment, much different in comparison to the unappreciative work of scanning girls in the big laboratories of the United States of America.

George N. Vlahakis: The timeliness of the past. Metrical images of the science during the verge of two centuries (19th-20th c.)

This paper discusses the image of science in the late 19th and early 20th century Greece. Our evidence are not based on the usual sources like scientific books and articles but on several poems published during that time. These poems, mainly written by the popular poet Georgios Souris, had a lot of references about the status of science and scientists in the society of that period. Souris, a progressive mind, criticized strongly the absence of an originality in the activities of the Greek scientists.
Some other poems, which we present, also here, discuss mainly the ideal of science from a more or less romantic perspective.
Finally we may conclude that the image of science, as science is undoubtedly a social coordinate, is spread in every cultural activity, poetry included.

Maria Terdimou: Mathematics as theological argument in 20th c. Greece

At the beginning of the fifties, some circles of the Greek Orthodox Christian Church gave an arbitrary interpretation of the sacred texts and undertook the task to prove the incompatibility of the theological issues and the contemporary scientific theories by declaring themselves as the guardians of the Christian Orthodox doctrine. These people tried to give to their proposition a scientific luster and they used the magazine Aktines of the religious union "Zoi" (Life).
Their purpose was to point out by scientific means, as they claimed, that the world must have been created by an ultra-mundane Creator.
The theories of Probability as well as the theory of intuitionism were used. Their efforts were nevertheless insufficient to persuade Greek scientists or any rationalist.

Anastasia Stamou and Stefanos Paraskevopoulos: The critical awareness of the language of environmental texts: selections from the interpersonal function of language

In this article we study the selections made from the interpersonal function of language when writing about environmental issues. The interpersonal function refers to the way we are involved in the utterance as text producers shaping social roles as well as to how we interact with the recipients of texts positioning them (in a relation of power, solidarity, and so on) in terms of the social world constructed. Drawing upon examples from environmental texts coming from the media, as well as from the formal and informal environmental education, we show how the scientific environmental information transmitted in the texts is rhetorically exploited through language (categorical assertive speech acts, evaluation), leading to the naturalization of scientific “truth”.

Dimitrios Athanasakis: Philosophy as politics: Antonio Negri on Spinoza’s Democracy

First in The Savage Anomaly: The Power of Spinoza’s Metaphysics and Politics, and later in Subversive Spinoza: (Un) Contemporary Variations, A. Negri proposes an original interpretation of Spinoza’s philosophical and political thought, based on Spinoza’s naturalistic or anti-contractual conception of the right of the state or of the sovereign. This interpretation, which focuses on the ontological and political implications of the power of a multitude, is strongly related to the historical development of a “subversive democracy”, and therefore to Marxism itself. From Negri’s point of view, Spinoza’s Political Treatise is essential to revolutionary thought, in so far as it offers an adequate response to the crisis of Marxism.

Christos Kefalis: Michio Kaku, a radical scientist

Michio Kaku, the well-known Japanese-American physicist, has greatly contributed to the development of superstring theory and the formation of modern scientific outlook. Moreover, he has produced a number of popular works dealing with the philosophical implications of modern physics, in which he makes radical, atheistic deductions, not infrequently referring to materialist dialectics and Marxism. A social activist, he is also distinguished for his deep concern about non-proliferation of nuclear weapons and ecological problems. In the present article, we attempt a Marxist estimation of his epistemological views, laying emphasis to the unity between the content of physical theories and their philosophical implications and aiming to show the fertility of the dialectical Marxist method in dealing with the problems of modern natural science.

Kritiki: Issue 7 (2008)

Contents of the issue and links to the abstracts (full texts available in Greek - see corresponding page):

Ole Skovsmose: Reflections as a challenge

Reflections on mathematics-based actions and practices bring an ethical dimension to the notion of reflection, and this is the aspect I consider and develop in this essay. I elaborate on the notion of reflection by addressing eight different issues. (1) The necessity of reflection emerges from the observation that mathematics-based actions do not have any intrinsic link to progress by virtue of being mathematics-based. Such actions can be as complex and as questionable as any other actions. (2) Although reflections, from this perspective, are believed to be necessary, one could cite a functionality of nonreflection. For example, non-reflection enables the school mathematics tradition to continue to ensure that the future labour force has particular competencies in the right measures to match the social order for which they are destined. (3) Reflections often presuppose specificity, as they include general as well as specific reconsiderations with respect to some knowledge, actions and practices. (4) I use collectivity of reflections to refer to the observation that ethical considerations can be facilitated through interaction and communication. Often this presupposes that challenging questions be formulated in order to open up the ethical dimension with respect to mathematics in action. (5) Reflections presuppose directedness and involvement, and this brings me to analyse the intentionality of reflections. (6) Reflections can address very many different issues, which leads me to recognise the diversity of reflections. (7) It is easy to ignore or to obstruct reflections, and when reflections emerge, they can easily be eliminated from an educational context. We should never ignore the fragility of reflections. (8) This brings me to recognise the uncertainty of reflection. Reflections cannot rely on any solid foundation. Still, I find that reflections are necessary.

John Milios: The Marxian Notion of the Asiatic Mode of Production as a Critique to Evolutionary Approaches to History

The Asiatic Mode of Production (AMP) refers to the structural elements of a special type of pre-capitalist societies: a) absence of private property of the means of production, b) collective organization (economic, political and ideological) of the ruling class in a despotic state, c) collective organization of the ruled-laboring class in (village) communities.
Theoretically, the concept of AMP is not compatible with the mechanistic - economistic version of Marxism, which practically eliminates class struggle from Marxist theory of social evolution, and conceives human History as an exact succession of society forms, fully pre-determined by technical progress (the “development of Productive Forces”). According to this scheme, (which was codified and formed to a dogma by Soviet Marxists under Stalin), there are “four stages” (primitive communism, slave-owning society, feudalism, capitalism) which all mankind was supposed to pass necessarily through, leaving thus no place for the AMP.
The concept of AMP is also connected with political dispute, since it makes clear that the absence of private property in the legal sense does not necessarily mean abolition also of class power and exploitation, or, in other words, that class exploitation of the laborers may attain collective forms

Kostas Stergiopoulos: Is the success of Science Contingent?

After a brief presentation of the naturalistic approach of scientific realism, and after reconstructing the argument of the “inference to the best explanation” in a way that conforms with the demands of the naturalistic approach, this paper argues that this argument does not meet the claims of radical contingency which, according to the interpretation of scientific realist, has to characterize science’s success.

Anna Kostoula: Giambattista Vico, the Republic of Letters

Critique to the scientific enterprise is identified usually with the Catholic Church. Science has come out of this conflict as a free enterprise. Bacon’s New Atlantis gave the image of the ideal state which guaranteed the production of citizens appropriate for this great undertaking. No other critique reached the level of a conflict.
Towards the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th, right after the great Newtonian success, the Italian philosopher Giambatista Vico dares to express his disagreement with the New Philosophy and the ethos it demanded from its participants. With the hope that one can learn from a critique to our present Republic of letters, I try to reconstruct the characteristics of the Republic Vico envisaged for the learned. For this I make use of his two major works, The Autobiography of Giambattista Vico and On the Study Methods of Our Time.

Hellen Giannakopoulou: Organization and Governance of Education. Questions and Comments

Comments and questions concerning aspects of the “educational management” as a practice exercised in various post of an educational system, as an academic subject taught in undergraduate and postgraduate courses as well as a discipline with its own conceptual framework and research field are put forward in this paper. It is concluded that its conceptual delimitation against the related disciplines of “educational policy” and “educational sociology” addressing similar points but from quite different perspectives is a prerequisite of its scientific development.

Ioanna Stavrou: Science Education and Literature of Science Fiction: critical approaches

This work pertains to the contribution of science fiction texts to Science Education. We argue that science fiction, as cultural form, but above all as a way of thinking might help us to generate new ways of imagining global transitions in social environments and civil society in our present times and circumstances, and therefore could invite a more social and critical approach in the context of Science Education. We also argue that the conjunction of disciplines/cultures figured by the term “science fiction” bears re-examination as a resource for Science Studies and a potential mediator in science-humanities encounters. Moreover, science fiction, as product and part of the social consciousness of the contemporary world, could be an important participant in critical negotiations with techno scientific discourses. We conclude that these creative and critical conversations around sciences, such as science fiction, function as an enormously fertile environment of socio-cultural understanding of Science and Technology, and situate science fiction as a resourceful agent to respond to the political and ethical consequences that Science has in the world (human and non-human). Such approaches go a long way to develop culturally sensitive and sociocultural perspectives in Science Education, and contribute to educate a new generation of scientifically and politically literate citizens who actively take part in social processes.

Nikos Nikisianis and Giorgos P. Stamou: "Sustainability for biodiversity" ... on the relation between ideology and science at the dominant discourse of contemporary evology

A frame of popular concepts, like conservation, management, natural limits and, specially, (bio)diversity and sustainability is dominating the scientific and social discourse of ecology. Although these concepts are recognized as scientific, ecologists note their shortfall of positive definition. On the other hand, these concepts have powerful social uses, bridging science with economy and politics. Epistemological theories about the relation between science and ideology suggest that this role may hint ideological metaphors.
Indeed, it can be shown that (bio)diversity, as a quantification of the constructed totality of natural qualities, is based on the dominance of exchange value in economy, transferring its function in the interior of science. Correspondingly, the metaphor of “natural capital” in the frame of sustainability is a direct reflection of the reproductive process of total social capital. More generally, theories around sustainability seem to share the same anthropological base with classic bourgeois political economy.
These concepts have a two-direction role: importing inside science dominant ideological positions and social demands and exporting them as scientific documented demands. It is supported that these directions are not independent. As a matter of fact, the ecological demand for sustainable development ultimately expresses the dominant social demand for reproduction of capital, or for economical development. Finally, the theory of ideology is used to examine how only some of these ideological concepts dominate their scientific/ideological field, determining all others. Upon this ground, ecology is perceived as a “science of biodiversity”, aiming at the “sustainability of natural wealth”.

Kritiki: Issue 8 (2008)

Contents of the issue and links to the abstracts (full texts available in Greek - see corresponding page):

Aris Stylianou: Obscure light: Rousseau’s critic of the Enlightenment

The purpose of this paper is to present Rousseau’s argumentation against the basic idea of the Enlightenment, i.e. the concept of continuous progress. Focusing in his earliest text Discourse on the Sciences and Arts, the paper tries to show for what reason Rousseau argued that progress in science and in civilization was actually corrupting humanity. After dealing with the different elements of Rousseau’s political theory, the paper concludes that his critical view of the Enlightenment can be understood as a notion of ‘obscure light’.

Alex Koutsouris: Critical realism and the problem of interdisciplinaritywith reference to agriculture and agronomic higher education

The current unsustainable worldwide situation (and the search for a sustainable future) challenges, among others, our understandings of agricultural development. Therefore, new paradigms concerning development and science emerge with emphasis on systemic approaches. Especially in science and education various forms of cross-disciplinarity are debated with most of them claiming that inter- or trans-disciplinarity involve the tight co-ordination among disciplinary parts allowing, in turn, for the discovery of overarching conceptual framework. Such a thesis is examined through the lenses of critical realism. The latter through its differentiated and stratified ontology, implying methodological pluralism, considers the claim for the development of an overarching synthesis unifying theories, concepts and methods to be problematic. Instead, it maintains that the integrative part of the research process consists of integration of knowledge about a complex phenomenon. In parallel, it forcefully criticises the dominant paradigm of (agricultural) science and education; its adoption implies the transformation of both fields.Dr. of History of Science
Critique to the scientific enterprise is identified usually with the Catholic Church. Science has come out of this conflict as a free enterprise. Bacon’s New Atlantis gave the image of the ideal state which guaranteed the production of citizens appropriate for this great undertaking. No other critique reached the level of a conflict.
Towards the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th, right after the great Newtonian success, the Italian philosopher Giambatista Vico dares to express his disagreement with the New Philosophy and the ethos it demanded from its participants. With the hope that one can learn from a critique to our present Republic of letters, I try to reconstruct the characteristics of the Republic Vico envisaged for the learned. For this I make use of his two major works, The Autobiography of Giambattista Vico and On the Study Methods of Our Time.

Gianna Katsiampoura and Ioannis Parkosidis: Gender and Technology: a continuing discussion

The conclusions of scientific studies that point up the deficit of women’s representation in the fields of science and technology accent the necessity of the critical study of the basic theoretical feminist analyses so as to detect how this phenomenon has been shaped. The present study, based on the assessment of the inquiring, quantitative and qualitative, data and the analysis of the discussions from different theoretical perspectives that have been raised since a70s, attempts to: (a) investigate why the technological structures, institutional and not institutional, marginalize what is called “woman’s cognitive capital” contrary to the men’s model which is presented as the sovereign one and (b) examine under which conditions the existing technological culture would be reconstructed for the gender and other differentiations as well to be removed from its processes.

Vangelis Koutalis: Disputing the jurisdiction of the victor: the criticism of Priestley to Lavoisier

Is it legitimate to give again, today, a voice to the defeated in a scientific controversy? Does it deserve the effort to devote time in the contestation not only of the outcomes and the principles of a theory, that have been ratified as “paradigmatic”, but also to the legality of its claims? If this contestation aims at a rational negotiation of objecting rationalities of (contexts of thought, research programs, “paradigms” and so on), then it can possibly show us that during the invention and development of the sciences of modernity, we did not acquire only a breadth of unusual possibilities but also certain opportunities were lost, and certain paths of fertile criticism were closed. In this paper we reexamine the criticism of Priestley to Lavoisier in an attempt to open certain paths for the reevaluation of the beginnings of the science of Chemistry.

Philipos Tentolouris: Intertextuality, discourse genres and social relations: the texts for the Flexible Zone

In this article I try to show how on the basis of the Institutional Ethnography written discourse and specifically the texts of the Flexible Zone can be related to the so-called macro-context. The methodology of this research was based on the document-based investigation of specific texts which were considered as key texts for the Flexible Zone and the frame of analysis on relating the intertextuality and the discourse genres of these texts to the social relations in which they are located. The intertextual analysis indicated various descriptions of the methodology of the Flexible Zone within different discourse genres which was interpreted as the outcome of the various social relations in which these texts were constructed. Finally, it is argued that the Flexible Zone can be better described as “Flexible Zones” as different ideological constructions and practices which can be effectively indicated by the epistemological frame of the Institutional Ethnography.

Dimitrios Schizas and George Stamou: Baroque and Romantic Perception of Wholeness within the science of Ecology.

Chunglin Kwa and John Law considered scientific romanticism and scientific baroque as long-standing metaphors, tropes or metaphysical positions within the natural sciences. Scientific Romanticism involves the assumption that to understand nature we need to adopt a holistic approach in which we look up to explore emergent complexities. By contrast, the baroque alternative looks down and discovers limitless complexity within. In the present paper we will attempt to apply this classification scheme to the understanding of the history of ecological science showing how it is exemplified in the various ecological paradigms. We will also attempt to elaborate this scheme further seeking for how it is associated with environmental management and ideology.

Kritiki: Issue 9 (2009)

Contents of the issue and links to the abstracts (full texts available in Greek - see corresponding page):

Constantine D. Skordoulis: Towards a Philosophy of Critical Science Education

This paper is devoted to the study of the preconditions for the establishment of the axes for a Critical Science Education. These axes are deduced from the analysis of the theoretical developments in the fields of Critical Theory and Critical Pedagogy with a special emphasis on the contribution of Cultural Studies and Revolutionary Pedagogy. It is also underlined that a Critical Science Education ought to have the education of teachers as a starting point.

Aristotelis S. Gkiolmas, Ioanna K. Stavrou: Global Education as an alternative model of education for Sustainability and Social and Environmental Justice. A Critical Assessment

In the present paper a comparatively new model of education applied worldwide, the so called Global Education, is investigated. At first, the historical course and necessities that lead to the formation of this field are examined, together with the pre-existing trends in the field of international education. Then, a primary definition of this model of education is presented, as well as its main aims and objectives. At a second phase, the aspects and dimensions of Global Education, within its theoretical framework, are scrutinized. Then, the two main relationships that Global Education bears are critically investigated: the one with the concept of Sustainability and the one with the concept of Social Justice. Specifically, as far as the latter is concerned, the aimed balance between cultural Unity and cultural Diversity, as well as the notion of literate citizenship, are examined, in their connection with Global Education.
Finally, some critical Marxist positions regarding Global Education and
possible alternatives are presented, namely the Revolutionary Critical Pedagogy against globalized capitalism and the Radical Education with its statements.

Vasilis Tselfes & Antigoni Paroussi: Theatrical narration of scientific ideas: an opportunity to approach learning in a dialectical manner

In this paper our arguments are based on the following hypotheses: A. In education, inevitably, scientific texts (professional, educational, popular etc) are the source to derive the scientific ideas/concepts for teaching. This constrain establishes, also inevitably, rather reproductive teaching-learning processes and practices. B. The ‘language’ of scientific texts, apart from its syntax and grammar difficulties, is convincing in a context dominated by logic, at least in its typical form. However, typical logical reasoning seems to leave students indifferent. Therefore, the limited success of constructivism is reasonable, as the logic seems to be the “key” of conceptual conflict. Furthermore, it is reasonable that for the education of children we need more familiar teaching-learning contexts, where the functions of scientific ideas are approached by narration or image, and anyway not simply by reason. C. The “narrative” approach is more familiar to the students but this does not change the fact that learning takes place through processes of reproduction. In any case, narrations using scientific ideas do almost not exist. We also think that a theory representing learning in a reproductive context does not exist. Both should be constructed. In this essay we present the main characteristics of a theory representing learning as a dialectic entity emerging in the context of social-cultural reproduction. We also attempt to support this theory analyzing qualitative some of our data collected from a long project of teaching Science in a theatrical / narrative manner.

Manos Skoufoglou: The urban spatial structure during the transition from feudalism to capitalism: the case of the Netherlands

The current contribution is based on a research project focused on the historical processes of the transition from feudalism to capitalism in the Netherlands, as well as on the complex connection of these processes to the spatial transformations, to the evolution of the relation between towns and the countryside and to urbanization. What is attempted in this contribution is to spot some specific conditions, historical circumstances and features that differentiate the transitional period in the Netherlands from the general pattern of the transition in Western Europe. This approach could help to explain the regression of the Netherlands from the world trade’s centre, that it used to be during the 17th century, to a backward rural economy one century later. It could also illuminate some inborn tensions and characteristics inscribed in the social, as well as spatial, structure of Dutch capitalism.

Eleni Gianakopoulou: Gender identities and educational administration

In this paper selected issues concerning gender prejudices characterizing the mainstream approaches to educational administration are concisely presented and founding aspects of alternative theories concerning the role of gender and sexual identities in this field are outlined. These theories attempt to correlate gender issues to social relations of power in a world wherein various social roles and their associated functions – roles and functions of teachers, education managers, school administrators, parents and students – are reproduced from a generation to the next already gendered. Imprinted by features determining the usual, the permissible, the “normal” for man and women. Besides, it is argued for a methodological approach, which is based on institutional ethnography as being most suitable for the research of gender issues in educational administration.

Kostas Stergiopoulos: Scientific Method and Abductive Defence of Scientific Realism

This paper argues that the methodological version of the "inference to the best explanation" argument of Boyd and Psillos, is either ineffective or problematic. The fact that “scientific methodology is almost linearly dependent on accepted background theories” cannot provide, on the basis of the truth of the subject theory, a good explanation of the diachronic success of science without violating history of science.

Kritiki: Issue 10 (2010)

Kritiki: issue 10, cover

Contents of the issue:

Constantine D. Skordoulis: Five years of Kritiki: Results and prospects

Sean Sayers: Marxist philosophy in Britain: an account

Aris Stylianou: Multitude and Democracy in Spinoza

Vagelis Koutalis: The demarcation of epistemology from rhetoric

George Fourtounis: The later Foucault rereads Kant: What is enlightenment?

Michael Bartsidis: Conflicts about education in the community of Selitza in 19th c.: the case of J. Glafkopides

Sophia Chatzigeorgiadou: The contribution of dialectical philosophy in the pedagogical application of the findings of the research in memory