Kritiki: Issue 5 (2007)

Contents of the issue and links to the abstracts (full texts available in Greek - see corresponding page):

Kondyli Marianna & Eirini Maniou: Recontextualizing Commonsence Knowledge in «Social and Physical Environment Studies» of 1rst and 3rd Grade Greek Elementary School Textbooks: The Representations of Social and Physical World

In the socialsemiotic approach to language developed by Hallydayans Systemic Functional Linguistics, the role of language in constituting educational knowledge has been explicitly shown. Crucial parameter in the constitution of educational knowledge is considered to be decontextualized language, such as definitions and classification, conceived as necessary in generalized meaning. In the present paper tools of the Systemic Functional Linguistics, more specifically the Transitivity system, are used in analysing two textbooks in the matter of Social and Physical Environment Studies (intitled We and the World) of elementary school’s 1rst and 3rd grade; our analysis focuses on the representation of experiencial meaning. The analysis of the corpus highlightes different lexicogrammatic realizations in recontextualizion of the same thematic areas from grade to grade, as well as in the variation of definitions and classifications of social and physical entities, thus according to the paradigm of the distinction between social and physical sciences.

Anastasia G. Stamou and Anna Chronaki: How School Mathematics is Written? Scientific Discourses and Gendered Dimensions in the "Eucleid A" journal

In the present study, we examine the way pedagogic discourses are articulated and are used by male and female writers in the school mathematics magazine Euclid A. The theoretical framework of the study is that of Critical Discourse Analysis, while in the textual analysis, a systemic-functional linguistic approach is drawn upon. The analysis indicates that ≪traditional≫ is the dominant pedagogic discourse used by both genders, although male writers employ it more intensively than their female counterparts. Moreover, the ≪traditional≫ discourse used in Euclid A is found to represent mathematics as an uncontested truth. From a Critical Discourse Analysis perspective, ≪traditional≫ discourse functions ideologically: it constitutes an established discourse, resulting in the naturalization of mathematics.
NIke Dunk SB MID

Evangelos Intzidis: An Agonistic Democratic Pluralism: Modern Greek Debating Culture and the New (2006) National Educational Materials for the Primary Education

This paper examines the context of the debate concerning the national educational materials - especially the educational material for language and literacy - in the primary education. In our approach this debate is a rhetoric moment in which the institutional identities of pupils, teachers and professors are articulated around different political programs, educational politics trading in determinism for openness and contingency. This examination avoids to strengthen the conservatism - progressivism / disutopias - utopias distinction which is always an effort of particular to contest the universal. Air Max 95

Maria Terdimou: Geometry Versus Algebra Ancient Greek and Western Mathematics: Parallel or Intersecting Options by the Greek Scholars of the 18th Century?

During the long – lasting scientific decline following the fall of the Byzantine empire, use of Mathematics was restricted to the daily needs only. However, the revival of the scientific and philosophical thinking during the 18th century, strengthened the role of Mathematics, which acquired a dominant position. Arithmetic and Euclidean Geometry, i.e. the ancient greek mathematics, reigned supreme. The faith in the latter’s ever lasting value was proclaimed in every opportunity. The majority of the Greek Scholars belonging to this line of thought lived and taught before the so called period of Neo-Hellenic Enlightenment. Being, most of them church men were characterized by a traditional view of Science. Thus, it is to be expected for them to insist on the classical Euclidean geometry, a subject well known which offers the certainty of a solid and final knowledge; in contrast, Algebra, i.e. the more recent Mathematics, looked by its very nature, more abstract and, hence, more uncertain. The first elements of Algebra appeared in manuscripts of the period 1750- 1775, but, Algebra was not included in the mathematics textbooks, neither in mathematics treatises. This means that the first attempts to introduce Algebra in the mathematical curriculum were not fully successful. The basic reason for this hesitancy, was the difference between the algebraic and the arithmetic/ geometric way of thinking. However, in spite of this uncertain start, the first seeds had been already planted, and, as a result, several algebraic textbooks were published in the decades to come. Thus, by the end of the 18th century Algebra was included in the mathematics curricula on equal footing with Arithmetic and Geometry.

Georgia Petraki: The New Working Class

The basic working hypothesis is that while dependent labour represents by now the dominant social condition in Greek society, this is interconnected with the decrease of indigenous working class, the development of salaried technical/scientific/managerial professions which mostly comprise the new middle class, but also with the development of a “new working class” whose statistical representation is imperfect or even inexistent. We define here the “new working class” those layers of workers created as a result of new or even older employment relations, under expansion presently, as a result of the introduction of new technologies in social production and the developments of social and technical division of labour, which is strongly influenced in present day Greek society by the presence in the labour market of a large number of migrants, who live and work in conditions of semi-illegality. Yet the existence of the “new working class” which is in the process of formation in both the urban and the rural areas, is incompletely presented in official registrations, since it either works in unofficial economy (migrants and indigenous workers) or its registration in statistical categories is obscure and imperfect. Our working hypothesis is that in present day Greece, the manual work is performed to a great degree in both the urban and rural areas by migrant populations, whose position in the labour market is characterized by semi-illegality and insecurity. Also, that the degree of migrants’ presence in the manual work is conversely analogous to the degree of skills necessitated by each job category. Moreover, that the general tendency for a decrease of manual work in the total of employment (categories of individual professions STEP 7/8/9) (National Statistical Service of Greece, 1995) is reversed in those categories of unskilled trades for whose needs abundant, reserve and very cheap manual staff can be found. We are speaking mostly of “unskilled workers”, providers of “personal services” and “rural labourers”. The development of those labor categories highlights some of the structural characteristics of Greek economy and society.
Löpning & Utbildning

Obituary: Vaggelis Giannakopoulos

Joel Kovel and Michael Lowy: An Ecosocialist Manifesto (from our archives)